We plan to provide a detailed physical description of the process by means of   numerical modelling, developing a multiphase CFD model of the solar light absorption in nanofluid. The commercial STAR-CCM+ was extended through user coding to account for the features inherent for nanofluids. An example of the model-predicted temperature field is shown below for a solar collector heated from the top, a pseudo-random motion of the nano-particles is highlighted by vectors of their magnitude.


                                                                 Model predicted temperature field                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

The model was tested against the third-party experimental data, the validated experimental plot  is indicated in the figure below in terms of the superheat vs dimensionless height of the collector.


                                                                      Validated Experimental plot